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一位无神论者临终前的忏悔

10-26-2015 11:54| 发布者: snapshot| 查看: 336| 评论: 8

摘要: 一位无神论者临终前的忏悔http://www.norislam.com/?viewnews-13335排行榜收藏打印发给朋友举报来源:www.telegraph.co.uk作者:伊光编译热度540票浏览3230次 【共9条评论】【我要评论】时间:2010年4月22日 18:04核 ...

一位无神论者临终前的忏悔


http://www.norislam.com/?viewnews-13335

热度540票  浏览3230次 【共9条评论】【我要评论时间:2010年4月22日 18:04

核心提示﹕英国著名的无神论哲学家安东尼‧弗卢教授于2010年4月8日逝世﹐享年87岁。 他出身在一个基督教牧师家庭﹐但从15岁开始就反对宗教﹐一生从事无神论研究﹐出版过几十部反宗教的哲学著作﹐在许多所大学担任哲学教授。  在他81岁高龄的那年(2004年)﹐忽然间宣布他这一辈子错了﹐在他临终前认识到﹐宇宙间不可能没有造物主。

 

安东尼‧弗卢(Antony Flew)1923年2月11日出生在英国巴斯镇﹐最初在金斯伍德学校读书﹐因为他的父亲是英国卫理公会的牧师﹐所以从小就向他灌输宗教思想﹐希望他长大之后继承父业成为神学家。 但是﹐他记得从他15岁那年开始﹐就对宗教彻底反叛﹐喜欢研究哲学和历史。 在他青年时期﹐欧洲战争爆发了﹐他被应征入伍﹐进入了英国皇家空军部队﹐被分配到情报处。  在1942年到1943年的两年中﹐他在伦敦情报亚非所成为一名日语学者。 战后﹐他返回到大学﹐在牛津大学的圣约翰学院攻读哲学﹐1948年他以第一名成绩毕业﹐并且获得了英国大学哲学奖。 在读书期间﹐JL‧奥斯廷和吉尔伯特‧莱尔是对他最有影响的两位哲学家。

从那以后﹐他从事哲学研究﹑出版和教学工作﹐成为一名著名的哲学家﹐发表许多著作和专题论文。  他的许多名句半个世纪来成为西方哲学家讨论的成语和警句﹐人所共知﹐例如“跟随着苏格拉底的思路﹐凭借事实探路﹐不论事实走到哪里。”  “在辩论神学的时候﹐你首先要假定自己是一个无神论者。”  “神学的命题﹐无法用经验来证实和假设。” 从他在1950年发表“神学与假设”一篇著名论文起﹐研究哲学的大学生们就开始收集他的著名言论﹐他的许多观点被看作是无神论哲学的定论。

他写过许多批判宗教的文章﹐有许多成为哲学研究的经典﹐如1955年的“哲学神学新论文”﹑1961年“休谟的哲学信仰”﹑“人类理解的质疑”。   他从1950年代到1982年退休前﹐曾经先后在许多所大学哲学系担任教授﹐如阿伯丁大学﹑雷廷大学和约克大学(加拿大)。 他的成名之作有二十多部﹐如《上帝与哲学》(1966)﹑《道德演化论》(1967)﹑《西方哲学简介》(1971)﹑《无神论的假设》(1976)﹑《动物的合理性》(1978)﹑《达尔文的进化论》(1984)﹑《无神论的人道主义》(1993)﹑《安东尼‧弗卢散文集》(1997)。

2001年﹐他开始了反思﹐回忆自己走过的学术道路﹐十分荒唐﹐说了许多假话﹑错话﹐感到后悔莫及﹐自称是一个“反面角色的无神论者”﹐开始了自我批判。  2004年﹐他正式发表声明﹐“人之将死﹐其言亦真”﹐他引用阿奎那的哲学证实论说﹐有五大原理可以证实造物主的存在﹐如存在事物的设计和最初的动力。

他说﹐使他思想转变的一个关健时刻﹐是在认真研究细胞学中的DNA构造﹐看到了“令人难以想象的周密安排﹐因此产生了生命﹐其中必有高度智慧的秘密。” 他说﹐他仍旧坚持自己是一个达尔文主义者﹐赞同生物的进化论﹐但达尔文主义不足以解释生命现象。  他说﹕“生命从最简单的物质发生了﹐然后演变成复杂的结构﹐这使我感到振奋﹐我被说服了﹐是上帝的智慧。”

他从2004年开始﹐发表了许多忏悔的文章﹐向他的同行和弟子们宣布﹐他转变了﹐现在深信造物主的存在。  例如在一次题为“科学怎样证实上帝”的电视访谈中﹐他要求电视观众允许他赎罪﹐并且在他的有生之年对他的错误尽量补偿。  他说﹕“当然﹐许多人受到了我的影响﹐我希望继续努力﹐对我过去的错误进行改正﹐补偿由我造成的思想伤害。”

2007年﹐发表了一篇表示忏悔的文章﹕“上帝确实是存在的。  一个世界上最臭名昭著的无神论者是怎样改变了他思想的”﹐这里说的都是真话。  他所承认的最根本的转变﹐是认识到造物主的存在﹐可以确定无疑了﹐但是他还接受不了许多世界大宗教所信仰的天堂﹑后世和天命观。  他承认对造物主的认识水平还很低﹐提升不到这样高度﹐如基督教和伊斯兰。

(英国《电讯报》)
感谢浏览伊斯兰之光(norislam.com)资讯,欢迎转载并注明出处。


原文英国每日电讯


Professor Antony Flew

Professor Antony Flew, the rationalist philosopher who died on April 8 aged 87, spent much of his life denying the existence of God until, in 2004, he dramatically changed his mind.

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Antony Flew
Photo: JOHN LAWRENCE

Flew always described himself as a "negative atheist", asserting that "theological propositions can neither be verified nor falsified by experience", a position he expounded in his classic paper Theology and Falsification (1950), reputedly the most frequently-quoted philosophical publication of the second half of the 20th century.

He argued that any philosophical debate about the Almighty must begin by presuming atheism, placing the burden of proof on those who believe that God exists. "We reject all transcendent supernatural systems, not because we've examined or could have examined each in turn, but because it does not seem to us that there is any good evidence in reason to postulate anything behind or beyond this natural universe," he proclaimed. A key principle of his philosophy was the Socratean concept of "follow the evidence, wherever it leads".

When Flew revealed that he had come to the conclusion that there might be a God after all, it came as a shock to his fellow atheists, who had long regarded him as one of their foremost champions. Worse, he seemed to have deserted Plato for Aristotle, since it was two of Aquinas's famous five proofs for the existence of God – the arguments from design and for a prime mover – that had apparently clinched the matter.

After months of soul-searching, Flew concluded that research into DNA had "shown, by the almost unbelievable complexity of the arrangements which are needed to produce life, that intelligence must have been involved". Moreover, though he accepted Darwinian evolution, he felt that it could not explain the beginnings of life. "I have been persuaded that it is simply out of the question that the first living matter evolved out of dead matter and then developed into an extraordinarily complicated creature," he said.

Flew went on to make a video of his conversion entitled Has Science Discovered God? and seemed to want to atone for past errors: "As people have certainly been influenced by me, I want to try and correct the enormous damage I may have done," he said.

But believers waiting to welcome this most prodigal of sons back into the fold were to be disappointed. Flew's conversion did not embrace such concepts as Heaven, good and evil or the afterlife – let alone divine intervention in human affairs. His God was strictly minimalist – very different from "the monstrous oriental despots of the religions of Christianity and Islam", as he liked to call them. God may have called his creation into existence, then, but why did he bother? To that question, it seemed, Flew had no answer.

Antony Garrard Newton Flew was born on February 11 1923 and educated at Kingswood School, Bath. His father, a Methodist minister, encouraged his son to take an interest in religious questions, but he lost any religious faith at the age of 15.

Flew's studies were interrupted by the outbreak of war, in which he served in RAF Intelligence and was later attached to the air ministry. In 1942-43 he was a state scholar in Japanese at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London.

After the war, he concentrated on Philosophy, winning an exhibition, then a scholarship, to St John's College, Oxford. He graduated with a First in Greats and scooped the University Prize in Philosophy – the John Locke Scholarship in Mental Philosophy – in 1948. The following year he was appointed lecturer in Philosophy at Christ Church.

As an undergraduate, Flew had become an enthusiast for the new linguistic analysis approach to philosophy propounded by JL Austin and Gilbert Ryle and, as a lecturer, was considered one of its leading advocates. In 1955 he edited Logic and Language: First Series, an influential anthology that popularised the new approach.

He soon began applying the new technique to religious questions and, with Alasdair MacIntyre, edited New Essays in Philosophical Theology(1955). In his study of religion, Flew was greatly influenced by David Hume, on whom he became a leading authority. His Hume's Philosophy of Belief (1961) became the standard study of the philosopher's Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding.

Flew's interests were prolific and wide-ranging, and he applied his linguistic analysis approach to studies of psychoanalysis, psychical research, crime and evolutionary ethics, among other topics.

In political philosophy, Flew defended classical liberalism against the fallacies of egalitarianism, arguing that socialism and social democracy are based on assumptions about the world that are demonstrably false.

He became a leading critic of the Harvard philosopher John Rawls, who had attempted to reconcile liberty and egalitarianism in his critically acclaimed Theory of Justice. In Politics of Procrustes: Contradictions of Enforced Equality (1981), Flew rejected Rawls's claim that, since people do not acquire their natural talents through moral merit, these talents stand at the disposition of "society". Moral qualities, Flew argued, are not needed to entitle us to profit from our abilities.

In Sociology, Equality and Education (1976), Flew attacked the malign influence of the egalitarian ideology in education. In the 1990s he was the author of a series of pamphlets for the Adam Smith Institute calling on the then Conservative government to return to educational selection, to widen parental choice and to embrace a more challenging curriculum for brighter children.

In 2002, in reference to the Labour government's target of getting more working-class children into higher education, he observed that in 1969, when the grammar school system was still in place, the education minister Shirley Williams had proudly boasted that "over 26 per cent of our university population and 35 per cent of students in all institutions of higher learning are of working-class origin". This, he pointed out, was almost double the level of the second-best European performer, Sweden.

From Oxford, Flew went on to lecture in Moral Philosophy at Aberdeen University before being appointed Professor of Philosophy at the University of Keele in 1954. In 1973 he transferred to Reading University, where he remained until taking early retirement in 1982. Afterwards, he worked on a half-time basis for three years as Professor of Philosophy at York University, Toronto.

Flew was the author of some 23 works of philosophy, including God and Philosophy (1966), Evolutionary Ethics (1967), An Introduction to Western Philosophy (1971), The Presumption of Atheism (1976), A Rational Animal (1978), Darwinian Evolution (1984), Atheistic Humanism(1993) and Philosophical Essays of Antony Flew (1997).

Flew's volte-face on the existence of God was all the more remarkable given the volume of his writing in the atheistic cause and his vehement denial of internet rumours in 2001 that he had renounced his atheism. His response was entitled Sorry To Disappoint, but I'm Still an Atheist! In 2007, however, he was able to publish There is a God: How the World's Most Notorious Atheist Changed his Mind.

He was at various times a vice-president of the Rationalist Press Association, chairman of the Voluntary Euthanasia Society and a fellow of the Academy of Humanism. In addition to his permanent academic posts, he held several visiting professorships at universities around the world.

Antony Flew married, in 1952, Annis Harty; they had two daughters.


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引用 snapshot 10-27-2015 21:14
http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/04/magazine/04Flew-t.html?_r=0

这篇文章火药味十足,似乎值得翻译成为中文以飨读者。。。
引用 snapshot 10-26-2015 19:19
虽然是怀疑论者阵营的,但是比较中肯。有些基督徒做事情是奇怪些。。。。 ...
引用 snapshot 10-26-2015 19:18
http://www.skeptic.com/eskeptic/10-04-21/
引用 snapshot 10-26-2015 18:52
http://antonyflew.com/ 官方网站吗?
引用 snapshot 10-26-2015 18:20
http://antonyflew.com/ 官方网站吗?
引用 snapshot 10-26-2015 11:03
内容简介  · · · · · ·
西方哲学讲演录,ISBN:9787100031035,作者:(英)安东尼·弗卢(Antony Fl ...
引用 snapshot 10-26-2015 11:02
(英)安东尼・弗卢主编 黄颂杰等译:新哲学词典
引用 snapshot 10-26-2015 11:01
西方哲学讲演录 安东尼.弗卢等著 中国商务出版社 0条评论安东尼.弗卢等著 / 2008-03-01 / 中国商务出版社 ...

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