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為什麼說微信在開歷史倒車?MemeX概念是互聯網的精髓

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snapshot 发表于 7-10-2015 03:07:05 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
本帖最后由 snapshot 于 7-10-2015 03:08 编辑

微信文章只允許一個鏈接。也排除文本收縮的功能。所以是霸道和互聯網的大敵,在開歷史的倒車,製造無數信息孤島或者準孤島。移動互聯世代和智能手機最好的應用並不一定要如此,而且必定不應該如此。盼望基督徒能夠從哲學上從根基上顛覆它。
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以下引用自百度百科http://baike.baidu.com/item/memex。維基百科還沒有中文版,很遺憾。
memex
中文名memex
提出者Vannevar Bush
提出时间1945年
出    自《As We May Think》
目录
1简介
2信息机器Memex
1简介
编辑

Memex是Vannevar Bush于1945年在其文章《As We May Think》中提出的一种“扩展存储器(Memory-Extender)”设想。文中指出,Memex是一个基于微缩胶卷存储的“个人图书馆”,可以根据“交叉引用”来播放图书和影片。它可以通过照相或触摸屏感应来记录新信息。同时它还提供在资料之间建立关联的功能,读者可以建立一些指向某些微缩胶卷片段的链接,并依照自己的喜好形成新的线性顺序,甚至加上自己的补充或评论。而且这些可以成为共享,他人只要键入建立链接的作者的索引代码,就可以追溯到这些关联。
2信息机器Memex
编辑

1945年,一个美国科学家Vannevar Bush在《大西洋月刊》上发表了一篇文章《As We May Think》,提出一种信息机器的构想,就像下图中的样子。
这种机器内部用微缩胶卷(microfilm)存储信息,也就是自动翻拍,可以不断往里面添加新的信息;桌面上有阅读屏,用来放大阅读微缩胶卷;还有许多个按钮,每一个按钮代表一个主题,只要按一下,相应的微缩胶卷就会显示出来。每一个胶卷内部还记录着相关的其他胶卷的编号,可以方便地切换,形成同主题阅读。
在Bush博士的设想中,这种机器还可以与图书馆联网。通过某种机制,将图书馆收藏的胶卷,自动装载到本地机器上。因此,只通过这一个机器,就可以实现海量的信息检索。
他将这种机器命名为Memex,也就是“memory extender”这两个单词词首的组合,意思是“记忆的延伸”。
这个设想的影响非常大,后来许多早期的计算机论文中都提到了这个机器。然后,文中关于信息切换的描述,直接启发了“超文本协议”(hypertext)的发明。现在,我们在互联网上不同的链接之间跳转,其源头都可以追溯到这篇文章。

 楼主| snapshot 发表于 7-10-2015 03:07:51 | 显示全部楼层

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
以下是維基的英文版

Memex
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the Software Company, see Memex Technology Limited.
The memex (a portmanteau of "memory" and "index"[1]) is the name of the hypothetical proto-hypertext system that Vannevar Bush described in his 1945 The Atlantic Monthly article "As We May Think". Bush envisioned the memex as a device in which individuals would compress and store all of their books, records, and communications, "mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility." The memex would provide an "enlarged intimate supplement to one's memory".[2] The concept of the memex influenced the development of early hypertext systems (eventually leading to the creation of the World Wide Web) and personal knowledge base software.[3] The hypothetical implementation depicted by Bush for the purpose of concrete illustration was based upon a document bookmark list of static microfilm pages, and lacked a true hypertext system where parts of pages would have internal structure beyond the common textual format, so it's fair to say that early electronic hypertext systems were inspired by memex rather than modelled directly upon it.
Contents  [hide]
1 Details
1.1 A proto-hypertext system
1.2 Associative trails
1.3 Other features
1.4 Extending, storing, and consulting the record of the species
1.5 Missing features: search and metadata
2 Legacy
2.1 DARPA's Memex program
3 Memex revisited
4 See also
4.1 People
4.2 Ideas
5 References
6 Bibliography
7 External links
Details[edit]
A proto-hypertext system[edit]
In "As We May Think," Bush describes a memex as an electromechanical device enabling individuals to develop and read a large self-contained research library, create and follow associative trails of links and personal annotations, and recall these trails at any time to share them with other researchers. This device would closely mimic the associative processes of the human mind, but it would be gifted with permanent recollection. As Bush writes, "Thus science may implement the ways in which man produces, stores, and consults the record of the race".[4]
The technology used would have been a combination of electromechanical controls, microfilm cameras and readers, all integrated into a large desk. Most of the microfilm library would have been contained within the desk, but the user could add or remove microfilm reels at will.
The top of the desk would have slanting translucent screens on which material could be projected for convenient reading. The top of the memex would have a transparent platen. When a longhand note, photograph, memoranda, or other things were placed on the platen, the depression of a lever would cause the item to be photographed onto the next blank space in a section of the memex film.
The memex would become "'a sort of mechanized private file and library'.[5][page needed] It would use microfilm storage, dry photography, and analog computing to give postwar scholars access to a huge, indexed repository of knowledge – any section of which could be called up with a few keystrokes."[6]
The vision of the memex predates, and is credited as the inspiration for, the first practical hypertext systems of the 1960s. Bush describes the memex and other visions of "As We May Think" as projections of technology known in the 1930s and 1940s – in the spirit of Jules Verne or Arthur C. Clarke's 1945 proposal to orbit geosynchronous satellites for global telecommunication. The memex proposed by Bush would create trails of links connecting sequences of microfilm frames, rather than links in the modern sense where a hyperlink connects a single word, phrase or picture within a document and a local or remote destination.
Associative trails[edit]
An associative trail as conceived by Bush would be a way to create a new linear sequence of microfilm frames across any arbitrary sequence of microfilm frames by creating a chained sequence of links in the way just described, along with personal comments and side trails. At the time Bush saw the current ways of indexing information as limiting and instead proposed a way to store information that was analogous to the mental association of the human brain: storing information with the capability of easy access at a later time using certain cues (in this case, a series of numbers as a code to retrieve data).[7] The closest analogy with the modern Web browser would be to create a list of bookmarks to articles relevant to a topic, and then to have some mechanism for automatically scrolling through the articles (for example, use Google to search for a keyword, obtain a list of matches, repeatedly use the "open in new tab" feature of the Web browser, and then visit each tab sequentially). Modern hypertext systems with word and phrase-level linking offer more sophistication in connecting relevant information, but until the rise of wiki and other social software models, modern hypertext systems have rarely imitated Bush in providing individuals with the ability to create personal trails and share them with colleagues – or publish them widely.
Other features[edit]
The memex would have features other than linking. The user could record new information on microfilm, by taking photos from paper or from a touch-sensitive translucent screen. A user could "...insert a comment of his own, either linking it into the main trail or joining it by a side trail to a particular item. ...Thus he builds a trail of his interest through the maze of materials available to him."[5][page needed] A user could also create a copy of an interesting trail (containing references and personal annotations) and "...pass it to his friend for insertion in his own memex, there to be linked into the more general trail."[5][page needed] As observers like Tim Oren have pointed out, the memex could be considered to be a microfilm-based precursor to the personal computer. The September 10, 1945, Life magazine article showed the first illustrations of what the memex desk[8] could look like, as well as illustrations of a head-mounted camera, which a scientist could wear while doing experiments, and a typewriter capable of voice recognition and of reading text by speech synthesis. Considered together, these memex machines were probably the earliest practical description of what we would call today the Office of the future.
"Given a memex, a scholar could create her own knowledge tools as connections within reams of information, share these tools, and use complexes of tools to create yet more sophisticated knowledge that could in turn be deployed toward this work. The memex has been envisioned as a means of turning an information explosion into a knowledge explosion. This remains one of the defining dreams of new media."[6]
 楼主| snapshot 发表于 7-10-2015 03:08:11 | 显示全部楼层

Extending, storing, and consulting the record of the species[edit]
Bush's idea for the memex extended far beyond a mechanism which might augment the research of one individual working in isolation. In Bush's idea, the ability to connect, annotate, and share both published works and personal trails would profoundly change the process by which the "world's record" is created and used:
Wholly new forms of encyclopedias will appear, ready made with a mesh of associative trails running through them, ready to be dropped into the memex and there amplified. The lawyer has at his touch the associated opinions and decisions of his whole experience, and of the experience of friends and authorities. The patent attorney has on call the millions of issued patents, with familiar trails to every point of his client's interest. The physician, puzzled by a patient's reactions, strikes the trail established in studying an earlier similar case, and runs rapidly through analogous case histories, with side references to the classics for the pertinent anatomy and histology. ...
The historian, with a vast chronological account of a people, parallels it with a skip trail which stops only on the salient items, and can follow at any time contemporary trails which lead him all over civilization at a particular epoch. There is a new profession of trail blazers, those who find delight in the task of establishing useful trails through the enormous mass of the common record. The inheritance from the master becomes, not only his additions to the world's record, but for his disciples the entire scaffolding by which they were erected. -- As We May Think
Bush states that "technical difficulties of all sorts have been ignored," but that, "also ignored are means as yet unknown which may come any day to accelerate technical progress as violently as did the advent of the thermionic tube." Indeed, anyone who stops to consider the performance consequences of trail following – let alone link-directed pointer-chasing – over a microfilm library of near universal scope should quickly come to the conclusion that microfilm is no more appropriate a technology for implementing AWMT's vision than Jules Verne's cannon is an appropriate technology for sending astronauts to the Moon. In both cases the vision may be more significant than the specific technology used to describe it. See Michael Buckland's conclusion: "Bush's contributions in this area were twofold: (i) A significant engineering achievement by the team under his leadership in building a truly rapid prototype microfilm selector, and (ii) a speculative article, 'As We May Think,' which, through its skillful writing and the social prestige of its author, has had an immediate and lasting effect in stimulating others."[1]
In "Memex: Getting Back on the Trail",[9] Tim Oren argues that Bush's original vision expressed in AWMT describes a "...private device into which public encyclopedias and colleague's trails might be inserted to be joined with the owner's own work."
However, in Bush's manuscript draft of "Memex II" of 1959,[9] Bush says, "Professional societies will no longer print papers..." and states that individuals will either order sets of papers to come on tape – complete with photographs and diagrams – or download 'facsimiles' by telephone. Each society would maintain a 'master memex' containing all papers, references, tables "intimately interconnected by trails, so that one may follow a detailed matter from paper to paper, going back through the classics, recording criticism in the margins."
Missing features: search and metadata[edit]
The AWMT paper did not describe any automatic search, nor any universal metadata scheme such as a standard library classification or a hypertext element set like the Dublin core. Instead, when the user made an entry, such as a new or annotated manuscript, typescript or image, he was expected to index and describe it in his personal code book. By consulting his code book, the user could retrace annotated and generated entries.
Between 1990 and 1994, Paul Flaherty, a Stanford student who was looking for a project, was introduced by his wife to her supervisor. The supervisor had just seen a demonstration of the World Wide Web and suggested it could be improved and better conformed to the memex described by Vannevar Bush if links did not have to be manually inserted and instead one could follow a link simply by using the words themselves. Flaherty went on to create AltaVista, the first searchable, full-text database of a large part of the Web.
Legacy[edit]
This idea directly influenced computer pioneers J.C.R. Licklider (see his 1960 paper Man-Computer Symbiosis), Douglas Engelbart (see his 1962 report Augmenting Human Intellect), and also led to Ted Nelson's groundbreaking work in concepts of hypermedia and hypertext.[10][page needed][verification needed]
As We May Think also predicted many kinds of technology invented after its publication in addition to hypertext such as personal computers, the Internet, the World Wide Web, speech recognition, and online encyclopedias such as Wikipedia: "Wholly new forms of encyclopedias will appear, ready-made with a mesh of associative trails running through them, ready to be dropped into the memex and there amplified."
Bush's influence is still evident in research laboratories of today in Gordon Bell's MyLifeBits (from Microsoft Research), which implements path-based systems reminiscent of the Memex.
A fictional implementation of the memex appears in in the "Laundry" stories of Charles Stross.
DARPA's Memex program[edit]
In early 2014, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) released a statement on their website outlining the preliminary details of the "Memex program", which aims at developing new search technologies overcoming some limitations of text-based search.[11] DARPA wants the Memex technology developed in this research to be usable for search engines that can search for information on the Deep Web – the part of the Internet that is largely unreachable by commercial search engines like Google or Yahoo. As reported in a 2015 Wired article, the search technology being developed in the Memex program "aims to shine a light on the dark web and uncover patterns and relationships in online data to help law enforcement and others track illegal activity".[12] In their description of the program, DARPA explains the program's name as a tribute to Bush's original Memex invention, which served as an inspiration.[11]
In April 2015, it was announced parts of Memex would be open sourced.[13] Modules were available for download.[14]
Memex revisited[edit]
In 1967, Vannevar Bush published a retrospective article entitled "Memex Revisited" [15] in his book, "Science is Not Enough". Published 22 years after his initial conception of the Memex, Bush details the various technological advancements that have made his vision a possibility. The article claims that magnetic tape would be central to the creation of a modern Memex device.
See also[edit]
People[edit]
Andries van Dam
Douglas Engelbart
J. C. R. Licklider
Paul Otlet, considered one of the fathers of information science
Ted Nelson
Tim Berners-Lee, creator of the World Wide Web
Vannevar Bush
Ideas[edit]
As We May Think
Intelligence amplification
Mundaneum, the organization created in 1910 that aimed to classify all knowledge
Office of the future
Victorian Internet, term to describe 19th century telecommunications technologies
World Wide Web
References[edit]
^ Jump up to: a b Buckland, Michael K. "Emanuel Goldberg, Electronic Document Retrieval, And Vannevar Bush's Memex". Journal of the American Society for Information Science 43, no. 4 (May 1992): 284–94
Jump up ^ Manovich, Lev, "As We May Think", The New Media Reader, The MIT Press, p. 35.
Jump up ^ DAVIES, Stephen. "Still Building The Memex." Communications of The ACM 54.2 (Feb. 2011): 80–88. Business Source Elite. Web. 12 Dec. 2011.
Jump up ^ Bush 1945, 8.
^ Jump up to: a b c Bush 1945.
^ Jump up to: a b Wardrip-Fruin & Montfort 2003, p. 35.
Jump up ^ Kaz, Matt, "Vannevar Bush and Memex", The World Wide Web: the Beginning and Now, U Mich.
Jump up ^ "Secondary", Mouse site, Stanford: Sloan.
^ Jump up to: a b Nyce, James M.; Kahn, Paul (eds.) "From Memex to Hypertext: Vannevar Bush and the Mind's Machine". San Diego, London (...) 1991. [A reprint of all of Bush's texts regarding Memex accompanied by related Sources and Studies]
Jump up ^ Drexler, K Eric (1986), Engines of Creation[page needed][verification needed].
^ Jump up to: a b "Memex Aims to Create a New Paradigm for Domain-Specific Search" (Press release). DARPA. February 9, 2014.
Jump up ^ Kim Zetter (February 2, 2015). "Darpa Is Developing a Search Engine for the Dark Web". Wired.
Jump up ^ Forbes (April 17, 2015). "Watch Out Google, DARPA Just Open Sourced All This Swish 'Dark Web' Search Tech". Retrieved April 20, 2015.
Jump up ^ "Memex (Domain-Specific Search)". DARPA. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
Jump up ^ Bush, Vannevar. "Memex Revisited," Science is Not Enough (New York: William Morrow & Co., 1967).
Bibliography[edit]
Bush, Vannevar (Jul 1945), "As We May Think", The Atlantic Monthly 176 (1): 101–8.
Bush, Vannevar (1967), "Memex Revisited" (PDF), Science is Not Enough (William Morrow & Co.).
Wardrip-Fruin, Noah; Montfort, Nick, eds. (2003), The New Media Reader, The MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-23227-8.
External links[edit]
"As We May Think - A Celebration of Vannevar Bush's 1945 Vision", at Brown University
Vannevar Bush and Memex – Living Internet
Categories: Information scienceClassification systemsHistory of computingHistory of human–computer interactionMultimodal interactionHuman–computer interactionHistory of the InternetHypertextScience studiesScientific revolution
 楼主| snapshot 发表于 7-10-2015 03:09:18 | 显示全部楼层
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 楼主| snapshot 发表于 7-10-2015 03:17:55 | 显示全部楼层

這篇文章值得一讀,儘管談了不少當代無神論者旗手的理念

http://blogs.setonhill.edu/el336/2012/02/16/memex-and-memes/

Media and Culture (2012)
Spring 2012 — Seton Hill University
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Memex and Memes

Read the short essay on this blog (which contextualizes influential essays from the mid 20th century, that still define what we do in new media studies). It prepares you to read an essay I published in early 2003, around the time I was interviewing for my current job at Seton Hill. At that time, Google was still something of a feisty upstart, Wikipedia was just two years old, and iPhone, Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube did not exist.

The reading assignment asks you to respond to my article, but also engage with some of my source material (essays by Vannevar Bush and Richard Dawkins), as well as your own experience as a student at a high-tech university.

Background: Vannevar Bush’s “As We May Think”

In 1945, Vannevar Bush published, “As We May Think,” an influential essay that imagined how technology would affect reading and writing. Bush spends paragraphs and paragraphs describing what he imagines it would be like to flip through an immense library of documents, all accessible by typing a code into a keyboard. To us, the level of detail he puts into such a mundane detail may be frustrating, but we have to remember that no such machine existed at the time. His thought experiment perfectly describes, decades before anyone saw a dot matrix printer or read a document on a flickering cathode ray tube screen, how ready access to a huge variety of information would defines the act of reading.

If he seems at times boring, it’s because he was so right.

We take for granted so much of what, for him, was a truly visionary act of creative intelligence.

A memex is a device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory.

[…]

Most of the memex contents are purchased on microfilm ready for insertion. Books of all sorts, pictures, current periodicals, newspapers, are thus obtained and dropped into place. Business correspondence takes the same path. And there is provision for direct entry. On the top of the memex is a transparent platen. On this are placed longhand notes, photographs, memoranda, all sorts of things. When one is in place, the depression of a lever causes it to be photographed onto the next blank space in a section of the memex film, dry photography being employed.

There is, of course, provision for consultation of the record by the usual scheme of indexing. If the user wishes to consult a certain book, he taps its code on the keyboard, and the title page of the book promptly appears before him, projected onto one of his viewing positions. Frequently-used codes are mnemonic, so that he seldom consults his code book; but when he does, a single tap of a key projects it for his use.

[…]

The owner of the memex, let us say, is interested in the origin and properties of the bow and arrow. Specifically he is studying why the short Turkish bow was apparently superior to the English long bow in the skirmishes of the Crusades. He has dozens of possibly pertinent books and articles in his memex. First he runs through an encyclopedia, finds an interesting but sketchy article, leaves it projected. Next, in a history, he finds another pertinent item, and ties the two together. Thus he goes, building a trail of many items. Occasionally he inserts a comment of his own, either linking it into the main trail or joining it by a side trail to a particular item. When it becomes evident that the elastic properties of available materials had a great deal to do with the bow, he branches off on a side trail which takes him through textbooks on elasticity and tables of physical constants. He inserts a page of longhand analysis of his own. Thus he builds a trail of his interest through the maze of materials available to him.

In 1945, we see that Vannevar Bush has invented the concept that would later be called “blogging.”

Background: Dawkins, The Selfish Gene

In a 1976 book designed to explain genetics, biologist Richard Dawkins goes to great lengths to explain that genes act almost as if they are intelligent, because those genes that are best at passing on their traits to future generations get propagated, and those genes that get their carriers killed (or that reduce their chances to reproduce) quickly die out. Genes are amoral. A man is biologically conditioned to be jealous about his mate, because men who permitted or encouraged their mates to sleep around were less likely to have children of their own — thus, jealousy is a survival trait; but a man who is fertile enough to impregnate a lot of women, regardless of whether he stays around to help raise the offspring, is very good at passing on his genes; and the genes inside a woman are only interested in reproducing — they don’t care whether they reproduce with a spouse, they just “want” to make copies of themselves.

In a chapter in which he compares genetic material (which are bits of biological information) to cultural material (bits of folklore, ways of acting, gestures or traditions), Dawkins coined the term “meme”:

Examples of memes are tunes, ideas, catch-phrases, clothes fashions, ways of making pots or of building arches.  Just as genes propagate themselves in the gene pool by leaping from body to body via sperms or eggs, so memes propagate themselves in the meme pool by leaping from brain to brain via a process which, in the broad sense, can be called imitation.  If a scientist hears, or reads about, a good idea, he passed it on to his colleagues and students.  He mentions it in his articles and his lectures.  If the idea catches on, it can be said to propagate itself, spreading from brain to brain.  As my colleague N.K. Humphrey neatly summed up an earlier draft of this chapter: `… memes should be regarded as living structures, not just metaphorically but technically.(3)  When you plant a fertile meme in my mind you literally parasitize my brain, turning it into a vehicle for the meme’s propagation in just the way that a virus may parasitize the genetic mechanism of a host cell.

[…]

When we die there are two things we can leave behind us: genes and memes.  We were built as gene machines, created to pass on our genes.  But that aspect of us will be forgotten in three generations.  Your child, even your grandchild, may bear a resemblance to you, perhaps in facial features, in a talent for music, in the colour of her hair.  But as each generation passes, the contribution of your genes is halved.  It does not take long to reach negligible proportions.  Our genes may be immortal but thecollection of genes that is any one of us is bound to crumble away.  Elizabeth II is a direct descendant of William the Conqueror.  Yet it is quite probable that she bears not a single one of the old king’s genes.  We should not seek immortality in reproduction.

But if you contribute to the world’s culture, if you have a good idea, compose a tune, invent a sparking plug, write a poem, it may live on, intact, long after your genes have dissolved in the common pool.  Socrates may or may not have a gene or two alive in the world today, as G.C. Williams has remarked, but who cares ?  The meme-complexes of Socrates, Leonardo, Copernicus and Marconi are stil going strong.


 楼主| snapshot 发表于 7-10-2015 03:18:06 | 显示全部楼层
Reading: On the Trail of the Memex

Just 10 years ago, writing for the web was mostly something that technical people did. While communities of people traded messages in online forums or by email, online social networking as we know it today did not exist. (People left messages on each other’s answering machines, or emailed each other on Hotmail.com; for most of us, graduating from high school meant leaving behind the people in your group, rather than bringing that whole social network with you to college.)

I started blogging in 1999, but my blog didn’t mention the word “weblog” until 2001. When I wrote this article in 2003, only one academic article had mentioned the word “weblog” — though I didn’t know about it at the time.

I started blogging in 1999, but my blog didn’t mention the word “weblog” until 2001.

Seeing the memex as the direct precursor to the WWW is attractive, but problematic for several reasons.  First, and most obviously, the memex (had it ever been built) would have operated on photo-mechanical, rather than digital, technology.  Second, the operation of the memex is tied to the physical presence of texts – a stack of densely-printed microfilms, which can be sorted and displayed quickly, but which must first be printed and distributed to a paying researcher.  Third, the memex is only additive – the scholar can duplicate pages, but cannot synthesize (by copying and pasting chunks) or inserting or rearranging words in a stream.  In fact, the smallest unit Bush works with is a facsimile of a page; thus the medium Bush described was not hypertext, but hyperbinding.  Finally, the term “memex” reveals its retrogressive gaze.  Bush’s proposal was a tool for accessing those documents a researcher has already decided are worthy of purchasing and adding to his or her personal library, not for identifying texts which have not yet been connected to the user’s personal matrix of intellectually associations.

But even here, Google’s origins are strikingly similar to the memex. —On the Trail of the Memes

The Response Assignment

Bearing in mind that this essay, written in 2003, is limited in the same way as the essays written in the 1970s and the 1940s, consider an important assessment, reflection, or prediction. Drawing on your own experience, what you have learned in any class at Seton Hill, and your own exploration of the historical essays by Bush and Dawkins, write a thoughtful reaction that engages meaningfully with the theme of “the role of the writer” and/or the more general theme of “media and culture.”

Demonstrate your ability to support your ideas with direct quotes from the essays, hyperlinks to your own writing and/or that of your peers, and hyperlinks to relevant pages in the vast library available to us on the World Wide Web.

Submit: Click the Log in / Blog Me button.

Trackback: By 9am today, post a link from this page to your published entry.

Comment: Before class time, read and respond to 2-4 peer entries.

Assessment

The rubric will follow the same general pattern as previous assignments:

10-9: Entrepreneurial-Professional. Demonstrates insightful, thoughtful, deep engagement with the readings; demonstrates an evident willingness to engage with and apply course material.
8-7: Thoughtful-Acceptable. Demonstrates strength in insight and forethought, and evidence of successful engagement with the course material.
6-5:  Good Faith. Demonstrates emerging success in engaging with the course material, with evidence of good potential.
4-1:  Incomplete or unsuccessful effort.
0: No attempt made.
彩虹資訊RBM 发表于 2-18-2019 22:09:56 | 显示全部楼层
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